Age of discovery

age of discovery

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Age Of Discovery Video

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Age of Discovery allows you to revisit the age of exploration and discovery. Take on the role of a colonial power seeking fame, glory, and riches in the New World.

As you proceed through three ages, you launch expeditions of discovery, colonize regions, expand your merchant fleet, build capital buildings that give your nation distinct advantages, develop your economy, and if necessary declare war.

Age of Discovery is a reimplementation of Age of Empires III but without that name due to the expense of renewing the license from Microsoft.

This edition includes the Empires: Builder Expansion along with its capital buildings; its National Advantage tiles have been built into the new player boards.

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The coasts between the landfalls of Columbus and of John Cabot were charted in the first quarter of the 16th century by Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese sailors.

Sebastian Cabot , son of John, gained a great reputation as a navigator and promoter of Atlantic exploration, but whether this was based primarily on his own experience or on the achievements of his father is uncertain.

His lively and embellished description of these lands became popular, and Waldseemüller , on his map of , gave the name America to the southern part of the continent.

The map of Contarini represented a brave attempt to collate the mass of new information, true and false, that accrued from these western voyages.

The land explored by Columbus on his third voyage and by Vespucci and de Ojeda in is shown at the bottom left of the map as a promontory of a great northern bulge of a continent extending far to the south.

In the wide sea that separates these northern lands from South America, the West Indies are shown. Halfway between the Indies and the coast of Asia, Japan is drawn.

A legend placed between Japan and China reveals the state of opinion among at least some contemporary geographers; it presumably refers to the fourth voyage of Columbus in and may be an addition to the map.

Christopher Columbus, Viceroy of Spain, sailing westwards, reached the Spanish islands after many hardships and dangers. Weighing anchor thence he sailed to the province called Ciambra [a province which then adjoined Cochinchina].

To more and more people it was becoming plain that a New World had been found, although for a long time there was little inclination to explore it but instead a great determination to find a way past it to the wealth of Asia.

The voyage of the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan , from to , dispelled two long-cherished illusions: Ferdinand Magellan had served in the East Indies as a young man.

Familiar with the long sea route to Asia eastward from Europe via the Cape of Good Hope, he was convinced that there must be an easier sea route westward.

His plan was in accord with Spanish hopes; five Spanish ships were fitted out in Sevilla, and in August they sailed under his command first to the Cape Verde Islands and thence to Brazil.

The Gulf of St. In September a southward course was set once more, until, finally, on October 21, Magellan found a strait leading westward.

It proved to be an extremely difficult one: It was a miracle that three of the five ships got through its mile km length. After 38 days, they sailed out into the open ocean.

Once away from land, the ocean seemed calm enough; Magellan consequently named it the Pacific. The Pacific, however, proved to be of vast extent, and for 14 weeks the little ships sailed on a northwesterly course without encountering land.

At last, on March 6, , exhausted and scurvy-ridden, they landed at the island of Guam. Ten days later they reached the Philippines , where Magellan was killed in a local quarrel.

The survivors, in two ships, sailed on to the Moluccas; thus, sailing westward, they arrived at last in territory already known to the Portuguese sailing eastward.

One ship attempted, but failed, to return across the Pacific. Cano, not having allowed for the fact that his circumnavigation had caused him to lose a day, was greatly puzzled to find that his carefully kept log was one day out; he was, however, delighted to discover that the cargo that he had brought back more than paid for the expenses of the voyage.

It is fitting to consider this first circumnavigation as marking the close of the Age of Discovery. Not all the major problems of world geography were, however, now solved.

Two great questions still remained unanswered. The centuries that have elapsed since the Age of Discovery have seen the end of dreams of easy routes to the East by the north, the discovery of Australasia and Antarctica in place of Terra Australis Incognita , and the identification of the major features of the continental interiors.

While, as in earlier centuries, traders and missionaries often proved themselves also to be intrepid explorers, in this period of geographical discovery the seeker after knowledge for its own sake played a greater part than ever before.

The concept of a Northeast Passage was at first favoured by the English: In a trading company, later known as the Muscovy Company , was formed with Sebastian Cabot as its governor.

Under its auspices numerous expeditions were sent out. Soon, attempts to find a passage to Cathay were replaced by efforts to divert the trade of the ancient silk routes from their traditional outlets on the Black Sea to new northern outlets on the White Sea.

The Dutch next took up the search for the passage. The English navigator Henry Hudson , in the employ of the Dutch, discovered between and that ice blocked the way both east and west of Svalbard Spitsbergen.

Between and and from to , a series of expeditions inspired by the Danish-Russian explorer Vitus Bering attempted the passage from the eastern end, but it was not until —79 that Baron Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld , the Finnish-Swedish scientist and explorer, sailed through it.

The Northwest Passage , on the other hand, also had its strong supporters. In the English explorer Sir Martin Frobisher found the bay named after him.

Between and , three English voyagers—Robert Bylot, Sir Thomas Button , and William Baffin —thoroughly explored the bay, returning convinced that there was no strait out of it leading westward.

As in the quest for a Northeast Passage, interest turned from the search for a route leading to the riches of the East to the exploitation of local resources.

Lawrence estuary and Hudson Bay. Further search for the passage itself did not take place until the 19th century: It was left to the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen to be the first to sail through the passage, which he did in — It was the Dutch, trading on the fringes of the known world, who were the explorers.

Victualing their ships at the Cape, they soon learned that, by sailing east for some 3, miles 5, km before turning north, they would encounter favourable winds in setting a course toward the Spice Islands now the Moluccas.

In a farsighted governor general of the Dutch East India Company , Anthony van Diemen , sent out the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman for the immediate purpose of making an exploratory voyage, but with the ultimate aim of developing trade.

He sailed north without finding Cook Strait , and, making a sweeping arc on his voyage back to the Dutch port of Batavia now Jakarta , Indonesia , he discovered the Tonga and the Fiji Islands.

The earlier European explorers in the Pacific were primarily in search of trade or booty; the later ones were primarily in search of information.

The traders, for the most part Spaniards, established land portages from harbours on the Caribbean to harbours on the west coast of Central and South America; from the Pacific coast ports of the Americas, they then set a course westward to the Philippines.

Many of their ships crossed and recrossed the Pacific without making a landfall; many islands were found, named, and lost, only to be found again without recognition, renamed, and perhaps lost yet again.

In the days before longitude could be accurately fixed, such uncertainty was not surprising. In doing so, he coasted the south shore of New Guinea, sailing through Torres Strait, unaware that another continent lay on his left hand.

The English were rivals of the Spaniards in the search for wealth in unknown lands in the Pacific. Two English seamen, Sir Francis Drake and Thomas Cavendish , circumnavigated the world from west to east in to and to , respectively.

He then sailed along the coast of Peru, surprising and plundering Spanish ships laden with gold, silver, precious stones, and pearls.

His fortune made, Drake continued northward perhaps in search of the Northwest Passage. He returned south to winter in New Albion California ; the next summer he sailed on the Spanish route to Manila, then returned home by the Cape.

Despite the fact that he participated in several buccaneering voyages, the English seaman William Dampier , who was active in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, may be regarded as the first to travel mainly to satisfy scientific curiosity.

In the late 18th century, the final phase of Pacific exploration occurred. The courses sailed were in the familiar waters of the southern tropics; none was through the dangerous waters of higher latitudes.

James Cook , the English navigator, in three magnificent voyages at long last succeeded in demolishing the fables about Pacific geography.

He then turned northward, charting carefully, being well aware of the dangers of the Great Barrier Reef.

He sailed through Torres Strait , recognizing as he did so that New Guinea was an island. When Cook sailed back to England by Batavia and the Cape, the coastline of the fifth continent was almost complete; only in the south did it still remain unknown.

In to , two British navigators, George Bass and Matthew Flinders , circumnavigated Tasmania , and in —03 Flinders charted the coast of the Great Australian Bight and circumnavigated the continent, thereby proving that there was no strait from the bight to the Gulf of Carpentaria.

In a second voyage, from to , which in many ways was the greatest of the three, Cook searched systematically for the elusive continent that many still believed might exist.

The first summer he examined the area to the south of the Indian Ocean; in the second, he searched the ocean between New Zealand and Cape Horn; and, in the third, the ocean between Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope.

He sailed home convinced that the great South Pacific continent of the map makers was a fable. With the exploration of the Pacific completed, interest in a Northwest Passage revived.

He then sailed south to Hawaii, where he was killed in a dispute with the islanders. Terra Australis Incognita had disappeared: It was Matthew Flinders who suggested that the fifth continent should be named Australia—a name that had long associations with the South Seas and that accorded well with the names of the other continents.

At the opening of the 19th century, the major features of Europe, Asia, and North and South America were known; in Africa some classic misconceptions still persisted; inland Australia was still almost blank; and Antarctica was not on the map at all.

The river systems were the key to African geography. The Zambezi , in south-central Africa, was not known at all until, in the midth century, the Scottish missionary-explorer David Livingstone crossed the Kalahari from the south, found Lake Ngami , and, hearing of populous areas farther north, came upon the river in midcourse.

On a great exploratory journey from to , the main purpose of which was to expose the slave trade , he first traveled upstream, crossed the watershed between the tributaries of the upper Zambezi and those of the lower Congo , and reached the west coast at Luanda, Angola.

On his second journey, sent out by the British government to test the navigability of the lower Zambezi, he explored the Shire Chire and Rovuma rivers and reached Lake Nyasa.

He refused to return to England with the Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley, who was sent to his rescue in , because he was still uncertain of the position of the watershed between the Nile and the Congo; he wondered if the Lualaba was perhaps a headstream of the Nile.

He struggled back to the maze of waterways around Lake Bangweulu and died there in The whereabouts of the source of the Nile had intrigued men since the days of the pharaohs.

A Scottish explorer, James Bruce , traveling in Ethiopia in , visited the two fountains in Lake Tana , the source of the Blue Nile, first discovered by the Spanish priest Paez in Speke then traveled north alone and reached the southern creek of a lake, which he named Victoria Nyanza.

Without exploring farther, he returned to England, sure that he had found the source of the Nile. He was right—but he had not seen the outlet, and Burton did not believe him.

The pattern made by the river systems of Africa was elucidated at last. The interior of Australia also posed a problem: This question did not arouse anything approaching the same degree of public interest that was taken in the geography of Africa.

Exploration was slow; the early settlers on the east coast found that the valleys led to impassable walls at the valley heads.

In the Australian explorer Gregory Blaxland successfully crossed the Blue Mountains by following a ridge instead of taking a valley route.

Rivers were found beyond the mountains, but they did not behave as expected. Another explorer, the Australian John Oxley , in observed: The Australian Charles Sturt resolved the problem by an imaginative journey made in — The voyage ended when he discovered that the Murray drained into Encounter Bay on the south coast.

The heart of Australia was not an inland sea but a vast desert. In —41 the Australian Edward John Eyre traveled along the south coast from Adelaide to Albany, a distance of more than 1, miles 2, km ; the Australians Robert Burke and William John Wills traveled from Melbourne in the southeast to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north.

Age of discovery -

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